Monday, November 25, 2013

The Dangers of Pesticides to Humans

A pesticide is any substance used to control pests (i.e., insects, vegetation, fungi, etc).[1] Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has approved roughly 11,000 pesticides intended for use in agriculture, inside homes, on lawns, in hand soaps, on clothing and other consumer goods.[2-4]

Most pesticides control the pests by poisoning them.[25] In the namesake of protecting our foods, we have almost wiped insects, birds, and other animals out of existence. In an NPR report, it has found that we are so successful in controlling pests that we can see only cornstalks in Iowa corn fields, but nothing else, not even a bee.[5-7,40]

Unfortunately, pesticides can be poisonous to humans as well. Some are very poisonous, or toxic, and may seriously injure or even kill humans. Others are relatively non-toxic. In this article, we will cover what are the harms that pesticides can bring us.

Potential Dangers of Pesticides


Speaking the least, pesticides can irritate the skin, eyes, nose, or mouth. In addition, exposure to them may result in the following:[1, 8-15]
  • Reproductive effects
    • Effects on the reproductive system or on the ability to produce healthy offspring
  • Teratogenic effects
    • Effects on unborn offspring, such as birth defects
  • Carcinogenic effect
    • Produces cancer in living animal tissues
    • Chemicals used in agriculture could be responsible for the high incidence of cancer in farm workers such as cancers of the lip, stomach, brain, prostate, connective tissue, lymphatic, and hematopoietic system.
  • Oncogenic effects
    • Tumor-forming effects (not necessarily cancerous)
  • Mutagenic effects
    • Permanent effects on genetic material that can be inherited.
  • Neurotoxicity
    • Poisoning of the nervous system, including the brain
    • Researche have asserted a connection between exposure to high levels of pesticides and the development of ADHD[45]
  • Immunosuppression
    • Blocking of natural responses of the immune system responsible for protecting the body

Although the answers are still not clear, the scientific evidence is quickly mounting that pesticide use is associated with the development of serious adverse health effects. One mechanism that pesticides can wreak havoc on our health is via DNA methylation.

DNA Methylation[16-23]


Although pesticides are subject to extensive carcinogenicity testing before regulatory approval, pesticide exposure has repeatedly been associated with various cancers. This suggests that pesticides may cause cancer via nonmutagenicity mechanisms. The present study provides evidence to support the hypothesis that pesticide-induced cancer may be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms.[21,47]

Epigenetics[16,44,47] is the study of heritable changes in gene activity which are not caused by changes in the DNA sequence. Examples of mechanisms that produce such changes are DNA methylation and histone modification, each of which alters how genes are expressed without altering the underlying DNA sequence.

Scientists from Northwestern University have examined seven commonly used pesticides (i.e., fonofos, parathion, terbufos, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion, and phorate) in vitro and found evidence suggesting pesticides may modify gene promoter DNA methylation levels, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms may contribute to pesticide-induced carcinogenesis.[21]



Who Are the Most Vulnerable?


Pesticides are prevalent and exist in abundance in our foods and environments. For example, they have been found in the least suspected food items such as rice[27] and red wine.[28]

People exposed to higher levels of pesticides as part of their job – for example in industry or in farming - may be at slightly higher risk of certain cancers, particularly leukemia and lymphomas.[8] Besides agricultural workers and farmers, children are also vulnerable to synthetic pesticides. Their internal organs are still developing, they consume more food and drink per pound of body weight, and they spend much more time playing on floors or lawns, right where the chemicals settle and accumulate.[35] That's why AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics) makes recommendations to reduce children's exposure to pesticides.[30,31]

How to Reduce Exposure to Pesticides?


Health risks of pesticide can be simply put as:
  • RISK = TOXICITY x EXPOSURE.
As we cannot control toxicity, we can only reduce our risk by reducing the exposure of pesticides from two sources:
  • Foods
  • Environments.

To reduce the exposure of pesticides from foods, go get the Shopper's Guide to Pesticides in Produce from EWG (Environmental Working Group). You can find which food items are the most dirty (i.e., loaded with more pesticides) and which items are the least dirty. For the dirtiest food items, buy organics. Also, follow the washing advice in [36] to reduce the pesticide residues on your foods (however, you cannot wash off systemic pesticides).[29]

Pesticides applied on residential lawns migrate indoors. A study by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found that residues from outdoor pesticides tracked in by pets and on people's shoes can increase the pesticide loads in carpet dust by as much as 400 times.[37] Another study shows that concentrations are often higher in house dust than in the soil that surrounds the house, even on farms.[33] Once inside homes where they're not subject to the normal degradation caused by sunlight and rain, pesticides can persist for years.



To reduce pesticide exposure from your living environment, reduce using pesticides on your lawns or gardens. Try IPM (Integrated Pest Management):[35]
  • Deciding what pest levels are acceptable to you
  • Preventing pests by working with Mother Nature
  • Ensuring that all the plants you want to keep are healthy
  • Identifying and monitoring pests
  • Taking control steps
  • Cultivating pest-repelling plants
  • Calling in the bug patrol:
    • Ladybugs
    • Green lacewings
    • Parying mantis
    • Syrphid flies
  • Bringing in birds
  • Maintaining and adding to diversity
  • Seeking out alternatives to synthetic poisons
  • Using biological pesticides
Also, before you step inside your house, take off shoes and leave them outdoors. If you have pets, wash their feet before let them go inside.

References

  1. Toxicity of Pesticides (Cornell University)
  2. Superficial Safeguards: Most Pesticides Are Approved by Flawed EPA Process (Natural Resources Defense Council)
  3. Pesticide Reregistration Status (EPA)
  4. A Loophole For Pesticides Puts Public’s Health At Risk (EWG)
  5. Cornstalks Everywhere But Nothing Else, Not Even A Bee (NPR)
  6. Pesticide toxicity to bees (Wikipedia)
  7. Pesticides Applied to Crops and Honey Bee Toxicity
    • Relative to other insect genomes, the honey bee genome is markedly deficient in the number of genes encoding detoxifica­tion enzymes.
    • Bee colony numbers have declined by 45% over the past 60 years.
  8. Pesticides and Cancer (Cancer Research UK)
  9. Pesticide Exposure May Contribute to ADHD (American Academy of Pediatrics)
  10. Pesticides on Oncology.com
  11. Banned Pesticide DDT Is Still Killing California Condors
  12. Pesticides used in South American GMO-based agriculture: A review of their effects on humans and animal models
  13. Birth defects caused by glyphosate, Andres Carrasco (Talked at UC Irvine)
  14. Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Produce Teratogenic Effects on Vertebrates by Impairing Retinoic Acid Signaling
    • The direct effect of glyphosate on early mechanisms of morphogenesis in vertebrate embryos opens concerns about the clinical findings from human offspring in populations exposed to GBH in agricultural fields.
  15. Pesticides and Food: Health Problems Pesticides May Pose (EPA)
  16. Epigenetics (Wikipedia)
  17. Methylation subtypes and large-scale epigenetic alterations in gastric cancer
    • Cancer-specific epigenetic alterations were observed in 44% of CpGs, comprising both tumor hyper- and hypomethylation.
    • Our results provide insights into the epigenetic impact of environmental and biological agents on gastric epithelial cells, which may contribute to cancer.
  18. Jones PA, Laird PW: Cancer epigenetics comes of age. Nat Genet 21:163-167, 1999
  19. Jones PA: The DNA methylation paradox. Trends Genet 15:34-37, 1999
  20. Epigenetic analysis of stomach cancer finds new disease subtypes (Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School)
    • Many of the methylation alterations were associated with significant changes in gene expression, suggesting that the methylation alterations may be functionally important in the development of gastic cancer.
  21. DNA methylation alterations in response to pesticide exposure in vitro
    • The present study provides evidence to support the hypothesis that pesticide-induced cancer may be mediated in part by epigenetic mechanisms.
  22. DNA Methylation and Cancer (Journal of Clinical Oncology)
  23. Singal R, Wang SZ, Sargent T, et al: Methylation of promoter proximal-transcribed sequences of an embryonic globin gene inhibits transcription in primary erythroid cells and promotes formation of a cell type-specific methyl cytosine binding complex. J Biol Chem 277: 1897-1905, 2002
  24. Nation's Pediatricians Warn Against Pesticides in Food (EWG)
  25. Pesticide (Wikipedia)
  26. Systemic Pesticides: Chemicals You Can’t Wash Off
  27. Arsenic in Rice (FDA)
  28. 滅芬諾 (Methoxyfenozide) 農藥 found in red wine (News; in Chinese)
  29. You cannot wash off systemic pesticides
  30. AAP Makes Recommendations to Reduce Children's Exposure to Pesticides (American Academy of Pediatrics)
  31. Nation's Pediatricians Warn Against Pesticides in Food (EWG)
  32. Sustaining the Earth by G. T. Miller
  33. R. Lewis et al., "Measuring and Reducing Exposure to the Pollutants in House Dust," American Journal of Public Health 85 (1995): 1168.
  34. Pesticide Action Network--Advancing alternatives to pesticides worldwide
  35. The Healthy Home by Dave Wentz and Dr. Myron Wentz
  36. Four Important Cleaning Tasks In Your Morning Routine (Travel to Health)
  37. R. Renner, "Curse This House," New Scientist, iss. 2289, May 5, 2001.
  38. 蔬果上残余农药 如何影响我们的健康 (in Chinese)
  39. Pesticides (Diabetes and the Environment)
  40. The Year the Monarch Didn’t Appear
    • A major cause is farming with Roundup, a herbicide that kills virtually all plants except crops that are genetically modified to survive it.
  41. Black Raspberries Protectively Regulate Methylation of Wnt Pathway Genes in Precancerous Colon Tissue
    • Black raspberries inhibit colonic ulceration and, ultimately, colon cancer partly through inhibiting aberrant epigenetic events that dysregulate Wnt signaling.
  42. The Hidden Truth About Peanuts: From Food Allergies to Farm Practices
    • It is common to see a conventional peanut crop sprayed with some type of pesticide every 8-10 days during the growing season.
    • Most of the peanuts consumed in the U.S. are now one of the most pesticide-contaminated snacks we eat.
  43. Toxic pesticides from GM food crops found in unborn babies
    • The research suggested the chemicals were entering the body through eating meat, milk and eggs from farm livestock which have been fed GM corn.
  44. Team reprograms social behavior in carpenter ants using epigenetic drugs
    • Epigenetic regulation has been observed to affect a variety of distinct traits in animals, including body size, aging, and behavior.
  45. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Urinary Metabolites of Organophosphate Pesticides
    • Scientists' findings support the hypothesis that organophosphate exposure, at levels common among US children, may contribute to ADHD prevalence. 
  46. Outside Variants Wired into Epigenetic Circuits That Can Boost Disease Risk
  47. Unexpected role for epigenetic enzymes in cancer

Sunday, November 17, 2013

Health Effects of Element Fluorine (F)

Most countries in modern-day Western Europe have opted out of artificially fluoridated water, dismissing the practice for what it really is: mass medication.[1,14,35] This includes: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Northern Ireland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland,[2] Scotland,[3] Iceland, and Italy. A 2003 survey of over 500 Europeans from 16 countries concluded that "the vast majority of people opposed water fluoridation".[4,32]

Mekorot, Israel's national water company also states, "In the South of the country, it is unnecessary to add fluoride because it is found naturally in the water."[5] Yes, Fluorine (F) is the 24th most abundant element in the universe and the 13th most abundant within the Earth's crust.

In this article, we will examine the positive and negative health effects of Fluorine.

What's Fluorine?


Fluorine is the lightest halogen and the most electronegative element. Fluorine doesn't hang around for long in the environment— it normally exists as negatively charged fluoride ions in combination with other elements.[15] It requires great care in handling as it is extremely reactive and poisonous. While a few plants and bacteria synthesize organofluorine poisons, fluorine has no metabolic role in mammals.

What Is "F" Used for?


The fluoride ion, when directly applied to teeth, is claimed to reduce decay based on some scientists. For this reason, it is used in toothpaste and water fluoridation, which are also recommended by U.S. Public Health Service, CDC and ADA.  However, water fluoridation was materialized not really due to the true concern for the public dental health, but because the greedy businessman wanting to dump a waste by-product from the manufacturing of aluminum.  Read [35] for the history of it.

What Are the Issues?


Soluble fluorides are moderately toxic. Chronic excess fluoride consumption can lead to skeletal fluorosis, (note that it's not just dental fluorosis) a disease of the bones that affects millions in Asia and Africa.[6,7] Based on a report[9] of National Research Council, it cites severe dental fluorosis (i.e., teeth appear discolored and sometimes pitted) can result from fluoride overdose. Severe dental fluorosis has been found in about 10 percent of children in communities with water fluoride concentrations at or near 4ppm.
That's why each water district tries its best to maintain an optimal fluoride level. For example, SFPUC (the San Francisco Public Utilities) has a CDHS (California Department of Health Services) approved fluoridation control range of 0.8 – 1.5 mg/L, with an optimal fluoride level of 1.0 mg/L.

However, fluoride poisoning and fluorosis are still prevalent.[6,25] The main reasons include, but not limited to:
  • Ingestion of fluoride-containing toothpaste[1]
  • Malfunction of water fluoridation equipment
    • It has occurred several times, including an Alaskan incident that sickened nearly 300 people and killed one.[8]
  • Inhalation of fluoride dusts/fumes
    • Use of coal as an indoor fuel source is still a common practice in China[16]
    • The 1783 eruption of the Laki volcano in Iceland is estimated to have killed approximately 25% of the Icelandic population, and 50–80% of livestock, as a result of fluorosis and sulfur dioxide gases.
  • Drinking water with naturally occurring levels of fluoride in excess of the recommended safe levels
    • In India, the most common cause of fluorosis is fluoride-laden water derived from deep bore wells.
  • Consumption of fluoride from the drinking of tea[17,25]
    • In Tibet, excessive consumption of poor-quality pu-erh tea is reported to cause fluorosis.

Other health risks of "F" include:[14]
  • Sodium fluoride can compromise cellular health and result in adverse thyroid function and adverse neurological effects.[7,13,30,31]
  • Fluoride was theorized to make people more docile and easy to control, and thus it was added to water supplies in occupied regions and POW camps by Nazi's.

Recommendation


We're not just getting fluoride from our tap water and tooth brushing. Bottled water often contains fluoride, as do sodas, juices, and many foods manufactured using fluoridated water. Between all of these sources, you can easily exceed the recommended dose of daily fluoride consumption (i.e.,  not more than 6 milligrams per day)[22] and start to see negative health effects. To avoid fluoride overdose, read [18] for the tips of getting fluoride out of water.

In [12], dentists like Dr. Cole suggest brushing teeth twice a day, for two minutes each time. If you drink tea in the morning like I do, consider reducing brushing to once a day. If you only do it once, bedtime is best, since that is when your mouth salivates less, allowing cavity-causing substances to take hold. If you skip brushing after meals, try the following alternatives:
  • Rinsing your mouth with water
  • Chewing gums
    • But, do avoid gums containing aspartame sweetener;[20] choose the ones containing xylitol[21]
    • Also, see [23] for the reasons that Dr. Mercola is against gum chewing.
    • Based on [36]. chew your gum not longer than 30 seconds if you do.
  • Flossing teeth
  • Scraping tongue 
  • Oil pulling or swishing[28]

If you have infants in the households, try breast-feeding your kids as much as possible. If you choose feeding them with infant formula, do follow ADA's advice:
Mixing your infant formula with nonfluoridated water

References

  1. Fluoridation by Countries (Wikipedia)
  2. Fluoride plan goes down the drain (BBC News)
  3. "European citizens' opinions on water fluoridation", Community Dent Oral Epidemiol., 2008 April;36(2): 95–102.
    • Many felt dental health was an issue to be dealt with at the level of the individual, rather than a solution to be imposed en masse.
  4. Sláva a pád jedné preventivní metody (Medical Tribune CZ)
  5. Merkorot (Israel National Water Co.): FAQ
    • Natural groundwater contains fluoride in varying levels.
  6. Shin, Richard D.; Silverberg, Mark A. (2013). "Fluoride Toxicity.Medscape.
  7. Reddy, D. (2009). "Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis".Neurology India 57 (1): 7–12.
  8. Gessner, B. D.; Beller, M.; Middaugh, J. P.; Whitford, G. M. (1994). "Acute Fluoride Poisoning from a Public Water System". New England Journal of Medicine 330 (2): 95–99.
  9. "Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA's Standards," National Research Council, March 22, 2006.
  10. Water Fluoridation (Mid-Peninsula Water District)
  11. "Fluoride and Infant Formula: Frequently Asked Questions," American Dental Association,
  12. Timing Your Teeth Brushing
  13. Effect of Fluorine on Thyroidal Iodine Metabolism in Hyperthyroidism
  14. The Healthy Home by Dave Wentz and Dr. Myron Wentz
  15. Stinky rocks hide Earth’s only haven for natural fluorine (Nature)
  16. Skeletal fluorosis (Wikipedia)
  17. Naveen Kakumanu, M.D., and Sudhaker D. Rao, M.B., B.S. (2013-03-21). "Skeletal Fluorosis Due to Excessive Tea Drinking". New England Journal of Medicine.
  18. How to Get Fluoride Out of Water
  19. ADA (American Dental Association)
  20. Aspartame is, by far, the Most Dangerous Substance on the Markeet that is Added to Foods (Dr. Mercola)
  21. Xylitol (WebMD)
  22. World Health Organization. Environmental Health Criteria 227, Fluorides, Geneva: W.H.O.; 2002. p.14-6
    • Skeletal fluorosis is caused by prolonged intake of excessive amounts of fluoride through water, food or both. The optimum upper safe limit is not more than 6 milligrams per day.
  23. 7 Important Reasons to Properly Chew Your Food (Dr. Mercola)
  24. Fluoride, Fluorine, Minerals, Supplements - Dr. Weil
    • High amounts of fluoride over several years can cause brittle bones.
  25. Dr. Mercola Interviews Jeff Green About Fluoride Toxins
    • If you don't use any  filter in your water system, your body is the filter.
    • Most of fluorides are accumulated in your bones.
    • (At 43:40 mark) A combination of nutrients like Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Vitamin C can bind free fluoride ions and help to excrete fluoride from your body more effectively.
  26. Transatlantic trade: How chlorine-washed chicken prevents greater U.S.-E.U. trading
  27. Effect of water fluoridation on the development of medial vascular calcification in uremic rats.
    • Fluoride replaces the hydroxyls of hydroxyapatite, thereby improving the strength of tooth enamel, but this process can also occur in other active calcifications. 
  28. 擺脫牙周問題的口腔排毒­法 (oil pulling in Chinese)
  29. US Government Admits Americans Have Been Overdosed on Fluoride
  30. 6 Toxins that Destroy Your Thyroid
    • BPA, Bromine, Perchlorate, Pesticides, PFCs, Fluorides
  31. Water Fluoridation Promotes Thyroid Impairment, Study Warns (Dr. Mercola)
  32. An Inconvenient Tooth - Fluoride Documentary
  33. What You Need to Know About Your Thyroid Health (Dr. Mercola)
  34. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity
    • Since 2006, epidemiological studies have documented six additional developmental neurotoxicants—manganese, fluoride, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and the polybrominated diphenyl ethers.
    • A meta-analysis of 27 cross-sectional studies of children exposed to fluoride in drinking water, mainly from China, suggests an average IQ decrement of about seven points in children exposed to raised fluoride concentrations
  35. Is the Government Poisoning You?
  36. This is what happens to your stomach when you chew gum for more than 30 seconds
  37. TOXIC FLUORINATED CHEMICALS IN TAP WATER AND AT INDUSTRIAL OR MILITARY SITES (good)

Monday, November 11, 2013

The Truth about Cholesterol

Is cholesterol really the bad guy? The answer is yes-and-no: it depends. In this article, we will discuss the myths and facts of cholesterol.



Is Cholesterol Really the Bad Guy?


In [1], Dr. Dwight Lundell said:
As a heart surgeon with 25 years experience, having performed over 5,000 open-heart surgeries,today is my day to right the wrong with medical and scientific fact.
In a nutshell, here are his statements:

What Was Wrong?Heart disease resulted from the simple fact of elevated blood cholesterol. The only accepted therapy was prescribing medications to lower cholesterol (hint: statins) and a diet that severely restricted fat intake.
What Is the Answer?Inflammation in the artery wall is the real cause of heart disease.[1,16,22,25] Without inflammation being present in the body, there is no way that cholesterol would accumulate in the wall of the blood vessel and cause heart disease and strokes.

If cholesterol alone were the bad guy, then the pill named evacetrapib would be the miracle cures for most heart diseases because evacetrapib can:
  • Substantially raises the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, reduces the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level, and enhances cellular cholesterol efflux capacity
But, based on a research, it concludes that:[23]
Treatment with evacetrapib did not result in a lower rate of cardiovascular events than placebo among patients with high-risk vascular disease and the trial was terminated early because of a lack of efficacy.


What is Cholesterol?


Cholesterol[3,6] is a lipidic (or fatty), waxy steroid found in the cell membranes and transported in the blood plasma. Here are the facts of cholesterol:
  • Body needs cholesterol
    • For its structural role in the cell membrane—to maintain membrane permeability and fluidity
    • As a precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids, vitamin D, and the adrenal gland hormones cortisol and aldosterone[4]
    • No cholesterol, no sex
      • As a precursor for synthesizing the sex hormones progesterone, estrogens, and testosterone and their derivatives.[4]
    • For muscle mass buildup
      • The research at TAMU revealed that following relatively vigorous workouts, individuals who had the most muscle mass gain also had the highest LDL cholesterol levels.[20]
    • For skin protection
      • In the skin, cholesterol is secreted by glands just below the surface to protect against dehydration and the wear and tear of sun, wind, and water.[3]
    • For healing wounds and protecting against infections.[5]
  • Almost every cell in the body manufactures cholesterol
    • In vertebrates, the liver typically produces greater amounts than other cells.
    • Even you eat foods with little cholesterol ingredients, you body will still manufacture at least 1,000 mg of pure cholesterol each day.
  • Cholesterol may act as an antioxidant[7]
    • It can stand in to perform an antioxidant function when certain vitamins and minerals are in low supply.
      • However, cholesterol is damaged in the process, and oxidized cholesterol is bad for the body.
      • That's why getting antioxidants in a steady supply throughout the day is important. Let your vitamins and minerals protect you from free radicals so they can allow your cholesterol to play all of its other life-saving roles.

What is Inflammation?


By itself, cholesterol does not cause heart disease and stroke. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. It's what inflammation does to cholesterol that causes arterial plaques.[11]

Inflammation is simply our body’s natural defense to a foreign intruder (i.e., bacteria, toxin or virus).[1] The cycle of inflammation is perfect in how it protects our body from these bacterial and viral intruders. However, if we chronically expose the body to injury by toxins or western diets the human body was never designed to process, a condition occurs called chronic inflammation.

Summary


In this article, we have shown you that cholesterol is an essential nutrient. Driving your cholesterol levels down too far can cause serious health problems.

On the other hand, atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. Inflammation in general are almost never the presence of too much cholesterol—rather they are too little of many other compounds: antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, omega-3 fatty acids, etc.

Without inflammation, cholesterol would move freely throughout the body as nature intended. It is inflammation that causes cholesterol to become trapped. As noted in previous section, chronic inflammation is harmful while acute inflammation is beneficial. To become healthy is to avoid chronic inflammation. As Dr. Dwight Lundell pointed out, the culprits of chronic inflammation is our western diets:[1,8]
What are the biggest culprits of chronic inflammation? Quite simply, they are the overload of simple, highly processed carbohydrates (sugar, flour and all the products made from them) and the excess consumption of omega-6 vegetable oils like soybean, corn and sunflower that are found in many processed foods.
Without much ado, I would refer you to read [1] for the causation of heart diseases:
Western diets -> High blood sugar -> Glycation -> Chronic inflammation -> Heart diseases

Remember this—Avoiding heart disease begins and ends with following a healthy lifestyle, not with pharmaceuticals. Poisoning your cells' ability to make cholesterol isn't the best way to avoid heart disease.  Finally, as Dr. Mercola has warned :[18]
  • Trans fat, not saturated fat, raises your heart disease risk

Photo Credit

  • 2healthcare.net

References

  1. World renowned heart surgeon speaks out on what really causes heart disease (Dr. Dwight Lundell)
  2. The Healthy Home by Dave Wentz and Dr. Myron Wentz
    • Every patient is different, and every case of heart disease involves a multitude of factors, from diet to activity level to lifestyle, as well as the genetic diversity of the human race.
  3. U. Erasmus, Fats That Heal, Fats That Kill (Burnaby BC, Canada: Alive Books, 1993).
  4. Hanukoglu I (Dec 1992). "Steroidogenic enzymes: structure, function, and role in regulation of steroid hormone biosynthesis.". J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 43 (8): 779–804.
  5. U. Ravnskov, "High Cholesterol May Protect Against Infections and Atherosclerosis," QJM Internaltional Journal of Medicine 96 (2003): 927-34.
  6. Cholesterol (Wikipedia)
  7. Smith LL (1991). "Another cholesterol hypothesis: cholesterol as antioxidant". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 11 (1): 47–61.
  8. Western Diets and Western Diseases (Travel and Health)
  9. Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Travel and Health)
  10. 10 Things You Didn't Know About Cholesterol (Everyday Health)
  11. Check out "Pathology of Atherosclerotic Plaque" of this article
  12. David Seaman: Inflammation From Our Diet Is Killing Us Slowly (a must-watch video)
  13. Statin Drugs and Diabetes
    • Statin drugs can increase women's risk of diabetes by 48%
  14. The Little-Known Vitamin Essential to Your Health
    • Vitamin K2 deficiency can cause calcium-buildup, which can increase the risk of calcification of the arteries and hence the heart disease.
  15. High Cholesterol Tied to Prostate Cancer's Return in Study
    • But expert doesn't recommend taking statins to prevent recurrence
  16. The Real Cause of Heart Disease
  17. The Overlooked Health Risks of Very Low Cholesterol
  18. New Scientific Analysis Confirms Saturated Fats Have No Link to Heart Disease
  19. The incredible cholesterol-lowering benefits of the Avocado
  20. Bad Cholesterol Not As Bad As People Think, Study Shows (TAMU)
  21. Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type
    • Research has shown that consuming flaxseed daily can help to reduce bad cholesterol.
  22. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
    • Anything that damages the inner lining of a vein may cause DVT -- surgery, an injury, or your immune system. 
    • People who have certain genetic disorders or more estrogen in their system are more likely to have blood clots, too.
    • Higher levels of estrogen during pregnancy may make blood clot more easily
  23. Evacetrapib and Cardiovascular Outcomes in High-Risk Vascular Disease
  24. Heart attack symptoms: Know what's a medical emergency
  25. Novartis Drug Becomes First To Prevent Heart Attacks And Strokes By Targeting Inflammation
  26. The Cholesterol Myth Has Been Busted — Yet Again